Khazar a world in which, thanks to some early victories over the Caliphate and the conversion of a very successful Turkish Khan to Judaism, the Khazar Khanate survived and indeed eventually expanded. It persists to this day, along with the also Jewish and closely allied Kwarziam in central Asia and Siberia. The religious picture is rather different, with the Roman Consortium (a democratic successor to the Byzantine Empire) ruling Anatolia and the Levant, Shia Persia and North Africa (Sunni Islam is in this world very much the lesser branch of Islam), the Yucatan and central America following an odd mix of Judaism and native faiths, Catholic Mediterranean Europe and roughly half of S. America (including a surviving Inca state), a Anglican Britain, and Central Europe following the North Roman Church, along with much of North America, Australia-NZ, and the other half of S. America. This is further complicated by the tolerant nature of the modern Roman/Greek and Khazar states, which include large Islamic minorities legally equal to the majority faith. (This world has the odd concept of the 'Seljuk Greek' ) There are large Jewish minorities in China and SE Asia, and Korea is running about 40% Jewish nowadays.
The Horn of Africa is mostly Orthodox, and Egypt is mostly Shia Muslim, with a soupcon of Jews. Egypt has been ruled by a clerical regime ala Iran for almost a century and a half, although it has mellowed over time. East Africa, colonized by the Persian Caliphate, is far more developed and Islamic than OTL, and richer (the Middle East is generally first-world in this TL, and East Africa is unto Persia as Mexico is unto the United States OTL). There are two Islamic states dividing Madagascar N/S, and several small-to-middling Slavic Orthodox states forming a buffer between the Khazars and the German New Empire (the Old Empire having been rather badly chewed up in the Pan-European War of the 1930s). The Omari Caliphate of Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, East Arabia, etc., etc. nowadays has lost control over its African possessions, but their inhabitants still recognize the spiritual leadership of the Caliph. China is one of the three or four most important powers, and does not get along very well with the Kwarziam, with which it has very old border disputes in the Tarim Basin area. There is a largish Basque state spanning the Pyrenees, with colonies in what in our world would be Venezuela and the Guyanas. South Africa is Spanish-speaking, ethnically rather more mixed, and never had Apartheid: although many Africans only got the vote in the late 20th century, money has always whitened. Italy is squeezed between the neo-Byzantines to the east and the New North Roman Empire to the north (not to mention the French to the west). Wallachia is the southernmost 'Khazarized' nation, although currently it is more closely tied politically to the Byzantines.
The Jews are divided into three major sects, one of which is the Khazari/Kwarziam version, one which has only a Diaspora, mostly in the Islamic world (and is a bit peevish about it), and a third which although still widely distributed has a (chilly) homeland ( 'Nova Judea' ) in the Newfoundland area, which they purchased from the French in the late 19th century. The Khazars and the Kwarziam are probably the worlds most modern states, although with only about 249 million inhabitants between the two, they dont really _dominate_ the globe. They dont get along with the North Romans, which are anti-Semitic and rather resentful about the last war. India is politically fragmented what with the North Romans temporarily conquering most of it, the Jews and the Muslims throwing them out, the French coming in
the place is a bit of a hodge-podge, although of late a free-trade zone covering almost all of the sub-continent has been established.
The world is divided into several loose blocks and alliances the Khazars have long-standing friendly ties with the Caliphate and the Consortium (although the Caliphate is still a bit sniffy with the Consortium re the Holy Land) as do the French and the Incas and Spaniards and is roughly as advanced technologically as our own world in the 1960s. A League of Nations-type organization, the Council of Nations, exists, and since the short but nasty nuclear war in North America between the Republic of New England and the Despotism of Bormanslandt CN forces have been helping maintain order and clean up the mess, and are providing a forum for some fairly impressive efforts to bring atom arsenals under control. Most important nations (Khazaria, the Caliphate, the Roman Consortium, the Incas and the French Union, Britain and its former colonies, the recovering Despotism) are on board, but the NNRE and the Chinese currently under a Neo-Legalist regime are making trouble.
There are some distinct cultural oddities most buildings are generally made into two clearly separated halves, and there is a obsession with books and learning over rather more of the world than OTL being a scholar is considered unmanly in very few countries.