From the time travel/alternate history short novel "Times without Number" by John Brunner. Time travel was invented a century ago, and while various crises have so far been overcome, an angry megalomaniac is loose in time, and he intends to being down the Most Catholic empire of the Habsburgs...
In this world, the Spaniards first successfully crushed the uprising in the Netherlands, and then with a secure base for their soldiers were able to carry out the Armada’s invasion of England. Ruling Britain proved useful, since not much later the invasion of Spain by Islamic armies (something I am going to attribute to messed up time travel, since it was logistically pretty impossible at the time, John Brunner, you blockhead) forced the Spanish Habsburg royal family to flee: London was a place safe from both Muslims and Frenchmen (although after the fall of Spain and Portugal, the French had their hands pretty full holding the Muslims at the Pyrenees). The eastern Habsburgs managed to establish their supremacy over most of the Holy Roman Empire, and in a final triumph, a War of the French Succession ended with a victory for the Habsburg candidate, leading by the mid 18th century to a Catholic Europe largely united under one royal family.
Of course, such supremacy leads to resistance, and an eastern European alliance arose to avoid becoming mere vassals of the now overgrown Habsburg Empire. Bohemia broke away in the Great German Revolt, and joined with still-protestant Northeastern Germans, Danes and even Catholic Poles fearful of Habsburg power in the Confederacy of the East, the Russians later joining in a “if you can’t beat them” calculation.
A cycle of West-East wars was broken by the development of time travel by an Italian genius in the late 19th century, and the swift theft of the secret by German spies, leading to an effective situation of Mutually Assured Destruction, time travelers from either side being able to unravel the existence of the other. As a result, the Treaty of Prague, forbidding any attempts to gain advantage over the other through temporal meddling, has held unbroken for a century by the time of the map, although to some extent by the fact that each side is so alarmed by the prospect of a Time War that minor violations and edge cases are often quietly excused. Time travel has not been used to liberate Spain retroactively, since that would change history so much that time travel would probably not be invented in the first place, and in any event would wipe from existence everyone in the “present day.”
In the year 1989, an uneasy peace still exists, although many in the know feel the real enemy is not so much the other great power as the very existence of time travel itself; there have been questions about the professionalism and supposed uncorruptibility of the Habsburg Monarchy and Catholic Church vetted Society of Time, along with the Eastern Temporal College: and all it would take is just the wrong butterfly at the right time to start the whole fabric of history unraveling. And while so far only the Empire and the Confederacy have time travel, both the Muslim great powers and the Chinese know of its existence and are doing their best to figure it out.
The Habsburg Empire, as well as much of Europe, also encompasses all of the Americas. With no British or French competition, the Empire has never bothered to colonize OTL’s US and Canada aside from a scattering of small settlements along the East coast (there are also some French settlements in what would be Canada) and most of the continent north of Mexico is ruled by proxy through self-governing native American vassals, most notably the Catholicized Mohawks, who used Spanish guns and horses to carve out a vast, if still fairly thinly populated, empire of their own. African colonies are limited to a scattering of trade posts due to the disease factor, and the Cape area, but the Indonesia-Philippines area has been colonized, as has most of India, although Muslim powers hang on in the northwest. Australia looked too backwards and desolate to bother with, and the Maori of New Zealand have recently converted to Catholicism.
There are several major non-Christian powers, of which the Mediterranean Caliphate is most notorious. A revolutionary movement which became an empire, it turned against stodgy Ottoman quietist Islam as well as Christianity, the Caliphate carving a huge chunk out of Ottoman territory. Although not as apocalyptic in its world view as it once was, the Caliphate remains actively dangerous, an advanced (by this world’s standards) grasp of medicine and sanitation having allowed it to breed to the limit of its agricultural capacities: the excess young men are expended on regular border wars against the Empire and the Ottomans, or sent off to India to help out their fellow Muslims in the north.
The Ottomans are keeping their heads above water, and managed to advance north into Russia for a while (indeed, the Tsardom probably owes its existence to Polish and Lithuanian assistance at the time) and insure the continued existence of the Crimean Khanate. Currently things are quite on the Confederacy front, Ottoman hostility being directly principally at the “heretics” in the Caliphate of the Mediterranean and the Rouhanid Empire of Persia aka Iran, which took over from the crumbling Sassanids a while back.
China, or Cathay as it is still called in the west, is the Big Brass Ring for missionaries, who always claim to the pope that given just a little more support they will convert the Emperor. Popes usually roll their eyes at this, having heard this all before for some three centuries, but there is a fair sized Christian minority in China nowadays, and relations between the Empire of the West and the Empire of the East are cordial: Habsburg emissaries have been successful enough in blackening the name of the Confederacy of the East that the Chinese emperor has taken their advice and pushed their eastern Siberian border well north, making access to the Pacific save the extremely long way around Africa (passing Imperial bases every step of the way) distinctly problematic for Russ and the other members of the Confederation.
Cipangu is notable for its Empirephilia; it has not converted to Christianity either, but under a series of outward-looking Shoguns the country we call Japan has become enthused about all things Imperial, whose successes they admire and envy. The Cipanguese are presently attempting to emulate the European empire by expanding overseas to create a power base of their own and get away from the country’s traditional role as a mere part of China’s sphere of political and cultural influence. This is mostly seen so far as cute by the Habsburg Empire, but as Cipangu footholds multiply in the oddest places (loads of Pacific islands, the Aleutians , bits of the Indonesian archipelago the Habsburgs never bothered to take, the Malay peninsula, even Madagascar and Tasmania…), some are wondering if a new threat to the Empire is emerging. At least they don’t know diddly about time travel.
Politics is still stuck in the era of absolute monarchy, or limited parliamentary power at best. Slavery still exists in Europe, but is increasingly confined to servants for the rich outside of South America and the Caribbean: large scale slaving has been made uneconomical by increasing State and Church overseeing of the process, and the prices for individual slaves are way up. Regulations include no more enslaving of Africans who have converted to Catholicism, and no more packing slaves like sardines in ships and dumping overboard those who don't make it (if the Imperial navy intercepts such a ship, the captain is automatically hanged): and as for regulations after they get to their destination, if you can't treat your slaves well enough for them to successfully maintain their numbers through natural reproduction, you aren't allowed to have any. The East Europeans have never been into slavery on a major scale, lacking any tropical "plantations." (Russ is still all serf-y, however).
Technology is quite backwards in this world, having progressed perhaps a bit over half as fast as in ours since the late 16th century, being mostly on a late 18th century level. Copernican theory is accepted in the Catholic lands, if not “evolutionary theory”, and a basic understanding of electromagnetic theory exists, although outside of one very special area it has little in the way of practical use (although some French savants are currently doing some rule of thumb experimenting with sending long distance messages over copper wires, often interrupted by poor locals stealing the wires). Long distance communication is by semaphore in populated areas, by fast horse in wilderness: fast travel is by sailing ship at sea, by wagon train on land. (Steam machinery is only just now being tried as a means of drawing water out of mines in Silesia: some steam tech has been around for a while, but just used for amusements and giant church organs). Hot air balloons exist: powered flight is the stuff of popular romances.
The microscope has been invented and a germ theory of disease exists, but remains controversial. Europe is only just catching up with the Caliphate’s fairly sophisticated grasp of the need for antisepsis and clean water, and the Caliphate remains the only nation to experiment systematically  with disease vaccination. (Test subjects are reassured by clerics that dying to save other believers is a form of martyrdom worth at least 20 virgins). Catholic Europe has a pretty sophisticated grasp of hypnosis and mind-influencing drugs, in some ways more refined than OTLs, but such things are classified as a form of “sorcery” by the Church and are kept as secret techniques of the Inquisition and other shadowy governing agencies, including the Society of Time.
The one area in which technology far exceeds anything OTL is the development of time travel, a product of esoteric Catholic philosophy and mathematics as much as a skewed understanding of electromagnetic phenomena. The theory behind them is very hard to grasp, but time machines are in fact rather easy to make, involving a framework of bars of magnetic iron and pure silver arranged in a mathematically derived arrangement: their construction is kept a deep dark secret and they are kept carefully locked away from the public eye, since someone with a good enough visual memory and access to the correct materials could rebuild it from memory and have a fair chance of it working. Time travel can also be used for emergency long-distance travel: since space and time are interrelated, one can travel back a few seconds in time and travel thousands of miles in space. (However, you had better know exactly what your target in space is like, otherwise you might materialize inside a solid object. Not good).
Time travel is mostly into the past for research and study, location of lost treasures, and cleaning up the messes of Time Criminals who risk changing history by bringing back valuable artifacts not recorded in actual history as lost, or by taking tourists to just the wrong spot in history, or killing their grandpa, or whatever. Travel into the future is strictly limited due to the high risk of paradox. Paradoxes and history changes are to be avoided at all costs: because this isn’t one of those happy shiny universes where changing things just creates a parallel universe. No, this is one of those worlds where a major change will make it so you and everyone you know will never have existed in the first place… (the official Church line is that souls cannot be un-created and just go to Limbo in the case of a temporal catastrophe, but it remains uncertain how many members of the Society of Time suffer from existential terror all the same). The general public knows time travel exists, but have no idea how dangerous it really is.
Certain vague recent rumors are ignored by most. After all, the Society couldn’t be regularly be almost un-making the world by experimentally creating other histories and then putting things back they were, right? I mean, the leaders of the most honorable and holy Society of Time can’t be a big a bunch of loonies, right?
 Displacing Russ fur traders and adventurers, to some Habsburg satisfaction.
 For all their religious enthusiasm, the inhabitants of the Caliphate have a high appreciation of practical knowledge and those who pursue it.